Shanghaied in San Francisco
Acknowledgments List of Illustrations Foreword Preface Introduction
Chaos on the Waterfront The Boardinghouse Masters Organize Latter Days of the Boardinghouse Gang First Hand Accounts of Shanghaied Sailors Whitehall Boatmen Politics Among the Shanghaiers Economics Overcome the Law Appendix: James Laflin and the Shipping of Whaling Men Glossary Bibliography Index
Illustrations Harbor police pursue shanghaiers Vallejo Street Wharf, 1863, with sailors' boardinghouses Vallejo Street in 1867 The Old Ship Saloon Eric O. Lindblom Shipping Articles, 1856 Chandler in boxing togs A typical crimp/ "Sometimes force is necessary" Arctic Oil Works, with cable cars under construction Ship Southern Cross John Curtin's boardinghouse, demolished by a bomb Billy Dwyer, bare-knuckle boxer and Barbary Coast saloon keeper Tommy Chandler vs. Dooney Harris boxing match The Lick House John "Shanghai Chicken" Devine The Chicken loses his hand The paddle steamer Wilson G. Hunt City jail, Portsmouth Square Downeasters at the foot of Telegraph Hill Joseph "Frenchy" Franklin Boxing referee and crimp Billy Jordan The Bank Exchange Saloon where Duncan Nichol dispensed Pisco Punch79 Sabatie letter searching for Henry Jobet Harry "Horseshoe" Brown Police officer and former boardinghouse keeper Thomas R. Langford Shipping master Fred J. Hunt Battery Street, near "Lime-Juice" Corner Ship Battle Abbey Black sailors' boardinghouse operator John T. Callender Bad Whiskey and Blood-Money The Men Behind Crowley's Fleet "Lime-Juice" Corner Whaler Jeanette Whaler Narwhal John R. Savory, a.k.a. "Scab Johnny" Bells of Shandon Saloon, Mr. Brewer proprietor Valentine Kehrlein, Jr., proprietor, Hotel Nymphia Dave Crowley, Sr., at Meiggs Wharf Tom Crowley, Sr., in 1898 Whitehall boatman Robert Gibson Dave Crowley, Sr. "hooking-on" Abe Warner's Cobweb Palace Whitehall sailing race Single Whitehall, with sail up Interior of John Twigg's boatbuilding shop The Desmond brothers rowing C.C. Stutz, butcher, and "Jack the Ripper's" boss Whitehall hooked-on to the Marlborough Hill Billy and Harry's Saloon, 1904 Gordon Grant whaling scenes Whitehall boatman and professional oarsman Henry Peterson The Desmond brothers sailing Oarsman Fred Plaisted, 1878 Whale Hunters on Howard Street Wharf Funeral of officers Dakin and Hennessy at Hall of Records Chris Buckley in fire department uniform Alex Greggains, Buckley's bodyguard and life-long friend Republican boss Martin Kelly Fire department boss Sam Rainey Thomas W. Chandler Billy Clark and Hans Hansen Tommy Chandler, circa 1900 General B. Griffin Barney, Deputy Shipping Commissioner Street scene at 504 Battery Street, 1879-80 Ship Amazon Andrew Furuseth, Coast Seamen's Union leader Steuart Street sailors' boardinghouse Former Board of Supervisors member Stewart Menzies Former Board of Supervisors member John T. Sullivan The Sailor's Home on Rincon Hill Choosing whaling crews Young America Saloon and clothier Harris' shop on Drumm Street
Today, after long struggle, the question of civil rights is by and large in the consciousness of most Americans. Hence the city described by Bill Pickelhaupt in this vivid, well-researched narrative seems, in one sense, light years away. The fact that free men of America or other nationalities could be enticed, drugged, then shanghaied into what amounted to penal servitude before the mast for indefinite periods of time seems, like slavery itself, to belong to another and very remote era. And yet, even as this book appears, cases regarding the enforced servitude of Asian immigrants in Southern California sweatshops are pending before the courts. The question of enforced servitude, even slavery itself, remains a pressing issue in many parts of the world. In various forms, the practice of shanghaiing has not become a thing of the past.
For all its sordid illegality, the culture and practice of shanghaiing--the boardinghouses, the saloons, the dance halls and bordellos, the crimps themselves, the swiftly sailing Whitehalls which serviced the ships--was an established part of the culture of old San Francisco. Indeed, as Pickelhaupt demonstrates, the official establishment of the city and its political bosses had a tendency to look the other way when it came to what was in effect the kidnapping and enslavement of working men. The culture of shanghaiing, moreover, was but one part of the harsh exploitation of maritime labor on the Pacific Coast which continued into the twentieth century.
Organized in March 1885 in San Francisco, the Coast Seamen's Union fought the exploitation of maritime labor as best it could. In July 1891 the Coast Seamen's Union joined the Steamship Sailors Union to form the Sailors Union of the Pacific, which elected former sailor Andrew Furuseth to its presidency. For the next quarter of a century ensued the struggle to correct such abuses as the beating of sailors, the frequent defrauding of sailors wages and shanghaiing itself. Not until Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin introduced the Seamen's Act into Congress, which was signed into law by Woodrow Wilson on March 4, 1915, were the last vestiges of enforced servitude outlawed on American ships.
there flourished in San Francisco, the rough, rowdy, frequently violent and sometimes
colorful world described by Bill Pickelhaupt in this engaging book. Writers such as Frank
Norris and Jack London found in the shanghaiing culture of the port of San Francisco a
world of elemental brutality--yet vivid drama. Today, San Francisco prides itself on its
identity as a world-renowned center for the arts, dining, retail and other amenities. It
is important to remember, however, that this city of refinement came into being and passed
its middle years as a bare-knuckled Pacific port. Assembling the historical materials of
this era and fashioning them into narrative, Bill Pickelhaupt helps us understand San
Francisco in a new light.
Shanghaiing. The word carries a power which frightens and fascinates. It attracts and repulses us. But how much do we know about this practice which supposedly thrived on San Francisco's waterfront in the 19th century?
I came across the subject of shanghaiing in 1994 while writing a small book about the old rowing clubs of San Francisco. There seemed to be murky connections with shanghaiing and the Whitehall boatmen who were early members of some of these clubs. How widespread was the practice of shanghaiing? Could shanghaiing exist without the assistance of San Francisco's politicians? I decided to investigate further. Using Richard H. Dillon's Shanghaiing Days as a guide, names of sailors' boardinghouse keepers were identified. Retail clothiers along the waterfront were also involved in providing men as sailors, willingly or otherwise. Then a photograph of a man who was a bare-knuckle boxer and boardinghouse keeper fleshed out the picture. The man, Thomas Chandler, not only shanghaied sailors and fought bare-knuckle bouts, he served on the San Francisco Democratic County Committee for over thirty years. Then shanghaiers who had terms in the California State Assembly and Senate revealed themselves. They spent more terms in the state legislature than in San Quentin. I was on to something.
The incentive to shanghai men was the advance money paid by shipowners through their agents and captains to men and women who supplied sailors to man a ship. No questions were asked--present a body and the first two months of that man's wages were yours. Sometimes the body did not have to be warm. Corpses were sometimes shanghaied.
Not just white males provided crews for ships in a questionable way. Although white males, almost all of them immigrants from outside the United States, formed the bulk of the community, white and Hispanic men and women joined in an early economic form of equality. Blacks shanghaied coloreds, Hispanics shanghaied Hispanics, Chinese shanghaied Japanese, and whites shanghaied everyone, regardless of color. Dorothy Paupitz, age seventy-eight, still sent young men to an uncertain fate, even after going through four husbands herself. (She did not shanghai her husbandstwo died and two went insane.)
Thomas Crowley, Sr., founder of Crowley Maritime, got his start as a Whitehall boatman on San Francisco Bay. He knew all the crimps on the waterfront. Old Man Crowley admitted he was one himself during his beginning. When he took a victim to his new home, If they gave me any trouble, I hit 'em with the boat's footstretchers. That would quiet 'em down.
While I was cataloguing oral histories at the San Francisco Maritime Museum Library, what inspired me originally was reading first-hand accounts of men who drank drugged liquor and woke up one hundred miles outside the Golden Gate. Culled in 1959 and '60 by Jack McNairn, these stories have never been published before. They make up a compelling part of our maritime heritagebut a part some people would rather forget.
Another clue, and a huge incentive to pursue shanghaiing as a research topic, was discovery of listings in San Francisco City Directories of something called the Seamen's Boarding House Masters' Association. When Tommy Chandler, a man I knew was a crimp, turned up as president of this association, I knew I was on to something fascinating. I found a photograph of him and two other crimps and the course was clearthe story of San Francisco's shanghaiing past had to be told even if the tale had to be pieced together. New research in the pages of the Daily Alta, from 1867 to 1890 yielded missing pieces with which a narrative could be stiched.
The payment book of a crimp also was uncovered. James Laflin arrived in San Francisco in 1849 on the Gold Rush ship Arkansas. Laflin served as cabin boy on the passage around Cape Horn from New York. When the Arkansas became the Old Ship Saloon, Laflin worked there as bartender. He shanghaied men for over fifty years in San Francisco. A four hundred forty page record book was discovered which documents payments made by Laflin for shipowners' agents to the various shanghaiers who brought in men to form the whaling crews Laflin specialized in. The period included is December 1886-December 1890. Over six thousand officers and men shipped through James Laflin's shipping office in that four-year period--and when a crimp brought a man in he signed for the money received. Shanghai Brown, Shanghai Nelson and dozens of other unsavory characters left a sample of their penmanship for history to view.
The voyage of discovery into San Francisco's seedy past has yielded results beyond my wildest imagination. The fabric of shanghaiing spread to the highest levels of state government, and influenced national legislation and international affairs. Yet shanghaiing did not die until the crimps had drained as much money from it as they could. When sailing ships had pretty much passed from the scene in 1915, shanghaiing died.
San Francisco has always had an aura of mystery unlike any city in the world, fueled by the possibility of living with freedoms little dreamed of elsewhere, of enjoying pleasures in a semi-lawless environment. Those illusions continue to be part of the city's attraction.
Part of the enduring mystery stems from stories that quickly spread about the city as it grew on the edge of the North American continent beginning with the Gold Rush in 1848-49. A manifestation of this lawlessness was the common practice of stealing men away to sea. They seemingly disappeared from the face of the earth for long periods of time, sometimes never to be seen again. The practice gave a new word to the English languageshanghaiingreplacing the older term of crimping. A cast of characters ranging from unscrupulouscrimps and lowly runners to skilled boatmen, respected sea captains and ship owners were its principals. Politicians, capitalist businessmen and the police were needed to allow shanghaiing to florishfor, though evil as the practice seems to us today, law-abiding citizens turned a blind eye.
Shanghaiing flourished in San Francisco between 1850 and 1910. It lent a real danger to the mystiqueand the miseryof the boom town. The practice prompted enactment of laws at the state and national levels to put an end to shanghaiing, but fortunes could be made selling sailors, so these laws were weakly enforced. The political power and influence of the crimps who made their living shanghaiing prevented effective enforcement of such laws.
Crimps included men with names such as One-Eyed Curtin, Horseshoe Brown, Shanghai Kelly, John Shanghai Chicken Devine; women like Dorothy Paupitz and Anna Gomes, and many more. Sailors' boardinghouses, where the tired, lonely seamen thought they would find clean beds and fresh food were, in fact, traps for the unaware. The saloons and brightly lit gambling and dancing halls where sailors went for entertainment on the waterfront and the nearby Barbary Coast were traps where the hapless victims were transported by Whitehall boats to ships about to weigh anchor. These excellent harbor craft were developed in New York City around the War of 1812, and frequently taken twenty-five miles or more outside the Golden Gate. When the senseless sailors awoke from a drugged state as a result of knockout potions slipped into drinks, they found themselves in the focsles of sailing ships bound for Shanghai, Liverpool and ports east.
This book follows the path of the crimps and politicians during their reign in San Francisco from 1850 until 1910. The first three chapters introduce many of the personalities involved in shanghaiing, from men as notorious as James žShanghaiž Kelly, folk-villain John Shanghai Chicken Devine and more respectable shanghaiers like bare-knuckle boxer Thomas Chandler and James Laflin, the smartest crimp of them all. The century-old mystery of the fate of Shanghai Kelly will also be revealed. The fourth chapter brings the other side of the shanghaiing equationfirst-hand accounts of men who were shanghaied. Most of these accounts are published for the first time, and may be found in the San Francisco Maritime Museum Library.
Whitehall boatmen, the subject of chapter five, formed the crucial connection between sailors' boardinghouses on shorethe supply side of the shanghaiing formulaand ships that needed sailors. In addition to the activities of transporting shanghaied sailors and smuggling liquor and opium, Whitehall boatmen ferried passengers and cargo between ship and shore. They sometimes went more than twenty-five miles outside the Golden Gate in search of business. That business may have been to persuade a British captain to buy supplies from a particular meat market or ship chandlery, or the more serious activity of enticing inbound sailors to desert their ships after plying the men with bad whiskey and filling their heads with stories of high wages, a good drunk or wild women, if they only followed their new found friend.
Chapters six and seven document the crimps who were also politicians, and their powerful friends like Chris Blind Boss Buckley, the Democratic Party boss of San Francisco in the 1880s, or William T. Higgins, Republican Party boss in the 1870s and '80s. In the face of legislation at the state level in California and at the federal level, San Francisco's shanghaiing community managed not only to survive but thrive for over forty years after the first federal legislation, the Shipping Commissioner's Act of 1872, attempted to put a stop to shanghaiing. Tables in the Appendix give an understanding of the demographics of the shanghaiing trade. Over seventy photographs and line-drawings, many not seen for over one-hundred years, help bring the days of Shanghaied In San Francisco to life.
A Ahlers, Dick Albatross: De Veer shanghaied onto Amazon: Attempt to shanghai a sailor onto American takeover from Mexico An Act to Prohibit Shanghaiing in the United States of 1906 Anderson, John Anderson, William R. Arago Decision Arctic Oil Works Arnold, Thomas Asbury, Herbert Ashton, John Austin, Alfred
B Bank Exchange Saloon Barbary Coast "Shanghai" Kelly's party Habitues Herbert Asbury's John Ashton murdered on Men shanghaied on On Harbor Police beat Part of First Ward Proximity to deepwater wharves Tom Chandler and John Devine Bare-Knuckle Boxing Bark Alaska: First mate disappears when crew shipped outside channels Bark Little Ohio: Lost in the Arctic Barney, General B. Griffin: Deputy Shipping Commissioner Barr, John "Jack the Ripper" Bartlett, Washington C. Battle Abbey: Herman attempts to shanghai a man onto Bay View and Potrero Railroad Bells of Shandon Blood-money British captains refuse to pay Cheaper to let crew desert and pay Menzies investigates problem Payments to runners Promised by Sailor's Home Reverse blood- money Stevenson determined to stop Total amount paid in 1872 Boardinghouse "Repeaters" Boardinghouse keepers: Alliance deteriorating Callender--black sailors' boardinghouse keeper Crowley states they wanted to be big fellows George Lewis elected assemblyman Impact of runners strike on Large share of advance goes to Marine Board attempts to regulate Press ridicules Refuse to adhere to Dingley Act Shipping master contacts when crew needed Steal sailors from one another Stevenson declares no advances to be paid to Stevenson helps Supply repeating voters in primaries Take two months' advance on sailors' wages Threat to from Labor Exchange Boardinghouses: Coastal located South of Market Commonality of interests with early merchants Destroyed by fire Early system chaotic Higgins saloon located in the midst of Keep sailors going by extending credit Location of boardinghouses in 1850s Most operated by immigrants New competition South of Market North End, or deepwater houses Runners represent Shanghai early San Francisco residents Shipping masters market maker between boardinghouses and shipowners Bohemian Club Booker, William Lane Booth, Newton Boston House Brady, Owen Brannan, Samuel Braverman, Charles Bray, John K. "British Bill" British grain fleet Brown, Harry "Horseshoe" Commits suicide Dead at time of Springburn shanghaiing Nelson worked for Partner in sealer Annie Brown, Henry "Shanghai" Boardinghouse on Davis Street Chandler as his runner Dead at time of Springburn shanghaiing In Whitehall boat race Next to clothiers Son arrested Son of "Shanghai" Brown Son-in-law murdered Testifies against reverse blood-money Brunsen, Martin Buckley, Christopher A. Apprentice under Fritz and Fallon Apprentice under Higgins Buckley aligned with crimps Chandler aligned with Corruption in municipal contracts Flees United States Greggains his bodyguard In fire department uniform Why Buckley aligned with crimps Worked serving Pisco Punch Budd, James Herbert Burns, Peter
C Calico Jim Callao, Peru Callender, John T.: Actively involved in black churches and politics Black sailors' boardinghouse keeper Boardinghouse in 1867 Makes death treats against Gomez Purchases stolen coal Signature in Laflin record Trouble with boarders Camp, William Martin Cane, Billy Cane, Johnny Captain Jack Cardoza, John Carlson, Johann Casey, Edward Warren Casey, Henry Casey, Joe Chamber of Commerce Chandler, Thomas Aligned with Mannix/Brady As a boxer As shipping master At Democratic convention Attacked by John Devine Democratic County Committeeman Enters politics to protect boardinghouse interests Friend of Menzies In politics Obituary Referees bout Rescues de Young Residence next to John T. Sullivan "Shanghai" Brown's runner Shoots self in hand Speaks to Boarding House Masters' Association Chandler, Thomas W. Chicago Hotel Chute, Richard: Graft prosecution New team opposes Stevenson Power base Republican boss State Republican party secretary Clark's Point Clark, Billy Classen, Adolph Coast Seamen's Union Bring charges against crimps Denies bombing Curtin's boardinghouse Foe of Curtin Knights of Labor withdraw support Support Maguire for Congress Coffman, Bill Coleman, William T. Colter, John Connors, Edward Consolidation Act of 1856 for the City and County of San Francisco Contraband, See Smuggling Cosgrove, Patsy Cowlitz: Captain undercuts wage rate Crimmins, Phil Crimps' Regatta Crowley, Patrick As Police Chief Boat named for May have received sailor's advance On Marine Board Whitehall boatman Crowley, Sr., Dave At Meiggs Wharf In Whitehall boat race Partner of Peter Burns Rescues Step-father of Tom Crowley, Sr., Thomas Accuses CSU of Curtin bombing Debunks trapdoor myth Employees Friend of clothiers Gasoline launches built for In 1898 Retrieves Rogers' body Stories Curtin, John Explosion at boardinghouse Murder at boardinghouse Signature in Laflin Record Survives shipwreck
D David, R.L. de Young, Charles de Young, Michael H. Democratic Party Desmond, Jack DeVeer, Max Devine, John "Shanghai Chicken" Bare-knuckle boxer Boardinghouse runner Executed Kamp dies Loses his hand Shanghaied "Shanghai" Kelly Shooting of Chandler Shoots August Kamp Dillon, Richard H. Dingley Act of 1884 Dolphin Swimming and Boating Club Douglass, James Douglass, William Y. Duarte, Mary Dwyer, Billy
E Eliza: Surgeon shanghaied onto Explosion, Curtin's boardinghouse
F Fallon, Matt Ferem, Johnny; Fjerem, John First Ward Fletcher, Leroy D. Fogle, George Franklin, Joseph "Frenchy" Aids Henry Casey's escape Appointed to Democratic State Committee Arrested Buckley's dogcatcher Business failures Dies in early 50s Elected Assemblyman Elected president of Boardinghouse Masters' Association Location of boardinghouse Republican County Committee member Testifies against Sailor's Home Friedman, Stan Fritz, Al J. Fulton House Furuseth, Andrew
G Garvey, Carl Gately, John Gately, William Gibson, Robert Gold Rush of 1848-9 Gomes, Anna Gomes, Luis Graham, Richard Greggains, Alex: Buckley's bodyguard Griffin, John D.
H Hansen, Alfred C. Harris, Dooney Harris, Joe Harris, William Hart, John Hawkins, Timmie Hayes, Joseph Herman, Warren P. Higgins, William T. Tries to kill Michael de Young Hotel Nymphia Hounds Houses of prostitution Hoyt, Henry C. Humboldt House Hunt, Fred J.
I Illegal Boarding: Arrest for Arrests for under Chief Crowley Prohibited under Act of 1872
J Jessen, Frank Jobet, Henry Johnson, John E. Jordan, Billy: Boxing referee Comments at Chandler's death Overview of his career Saloon owner Signature in Laflin Record
K Kamp, August Kane, John Kehrlein, Emil Kehrlein, Valentine Kelly, James "Shanghai" Birthday party story Disappearance and death Inspiration for later shanghaiing stories Myth of trapdoors at Nickname used by contemporaries Reputation Shanghaied by John Devine Signed for sailor's advance Typical immigrant business Kelly, Martin Kimble, George W. Klee, Henry Proprietor, Old Ship Saloon, 1907 Klondike Gold Rush Kremke, John
L La Follette Act of 1915 Labor Exchange Laflin, James As shipping master Bartender at Old Ship Saloon Death Early crimp Entry in Whitehall boat race Friend of John T. Sullivan His sloop used to aid Henry Casey's escape Laflin Record Nickname "Jimmy the Drummer" Partner in sealer Annie Partner of Brown and Nelson Partner of Pinner Payments made by Payments to Horseshoe Brown Payments to Levy Sails in Master Mariners' Regatta Shipping whaling crews Signed for sailor's advance Sloop Mary E. Donovan lost Whitehall boatman Lane, Walter W. Langford, John Langford, Thomas R. Law: 1864 law to control runners Boarding House Association formed in response to 1864 law Congress amends 1872 Act Crimps evade Daily Alta calls for enforcement of Dingley Act of 1884 First law in American S.F. to prevent desertion First law in California to prevent desertion Maguire Act of 1895 Marine Board of 1870 Shipping Commissioner Act of 1872 State law of 1889, illegal not to pay boarding bill Whitehall boatmen, smuggling and Levy, Louis Admits finding jobs for sailors Payments from Laflin Want ads to recruit greenhands Lewis, Edwin C. Changes political parties Delegate to state Republican convention Devine invades his boardinghouse Location of boardinghouse Republican County Committee member Lewis, George Lewis, Harry Lick House "Lime-Juice" Corner Lindblom, Eric O. Lyons, F.N. Lyons, Tommy
M Maitland, Billy Cuts off John Devine's hand Location of boardinghouse Thomas Chandler's partner Mannix, Jack Marine Board Mason & Company shipping agents Master Mariners' Regatta Maynard, Harry McAlpine, Thomas "Soapy" McCann, James: Arrested for illegal boarding Killed by John McLean Location of boardinghouse Numerous violent activites Threatens retaliation againsy ship's mate McFay, John McKenzie, Alexander McMahon, Peter Meiggs Wharf Menzies, Stewart Mordaunt, Al Mordaunt, Edward Morphy, Edward Mrs. Chiragino Mrs. Edgar Mrs. Gomes Mrs. Muheim Munroe, John Murray, Elizabeth Murray, Thomas Boardinghouse destroyed by fire Boardinghouse near Harbor Police Station Chained to mast In Laflin Record In Whitehall boat race Location of boardinghouse
N Napthaly, Benjamin F. Naunton, George: Shipping master Nelson, Nils "Shanghai": First hand account of Number of payments from Laflin Partner of Laflin and Shanghai Brown Proprietor, Chicago Hotel Sailor's Home steals two boarders of Shot while raiding seal rookeries Signature in Laflin Record Nichol, Duncan Nikko North Beach
O O'Brien, Jack Ocean House Old Ship Saloon: Building still exists Changes in address Dick Ahlers at Henry Klee at In 1907 Laflin as bartender "Shanghai" Kelly may have worked at branch Warren P. Herman at Olympic Club
P P.G. Sabatie & Company Parker, John Paupitz, Dorothy Paupitz, William Peopležs Party Peterson, Andrew Peterson, Henry Pickled Chinaman Pinner, Robert Pioneer Rowing Club Pisco Punch Plaisted, Frederick A. Plattžs Hall Popper, Max Portsmouth Square Price, John C.
R Rainey, Sam Republican County Committee Franklin on Republican Party: Chute's role in winning primaries Franklin and Lewis protect interests as members of Higgins, party boss Republican Party state convention: Lewis a delegate to Richardson, William A. Rix, Hale Robert J. Tobin: Whitehall boat named for Roeben, George Rogers, John Roney, Frank Runners: Arrest for illegal boarding Artist conception of Beat man to force him to ship Dave Crowley, Sr., for meat market Devine for Johnny Walker Devine "Shanghai" Kelly's How they worked a ship John Fjerem, for Sailor's Home Police stay on ship to stop Role in shanghaiing "Shanghai" Kelly's Share of sailors' advance Signed Laflin Record Thomas Crowley, Sr.'s first solo job as Ryan, James: Charged with aggravated assault Supervisor objects to extension of Sailor's Home lease
S Sailor's Home $1 per year rent Boarder beaten when he tried to leave British Consul calls a crimp joint Capacity 150 men Former chaplain testifies against Founded in 1856 Jack F. Stewart superintendent Laflin a runner for Partial view in 1863 Police comment Poor quarters Puts downward pressure on wages Reduces deepwater wage rate Representatives sign Laflin Record Sailor's Home subsidized by city Sailors offered drinks to attend chapel Steals two of "Shanghai" Nelson's boarders Ten boardinghouses align with Termed the largest crimp joint in the world Testimony against Sailors: desertion by Sailors' advance wages: Approximate total paid per year Congress outlaws payment to boardinghouse keepers Denial of charging for finding jobs Devine tried to get Kamp's Discount due bill for unfamiliar persons Drunken sailor refuses to ship out after receiving James Ryan attempts to shanghai to get Laflin Record documents Two months' wages to boardinghouse keeper San Francisco Board of Supervisors San Francisco Consolidation Act of 1856 San Francisco Fire Department and Politics Savory, John R. "Scab Johnny" Scott, Abel F. Seamen's Boarding House Masters' Association: Chartered March 27, 1865 Chute and Casey installed as officers John C. Price, vice-president Officers of Ships' captains refuse to pay members of Try to stop non-members from shipping crews Senator James G. Fair: Whitehall boat named for Shanghaiers: Control available sailors in 1902 John T. Sullivan's support among Method for transporting victims Name on shipping articles in 1855-6 Ship out crew within 24 hours of their arrival Signatures in Laflin Record Supply sailors in Gold Rush San Francisco Shanghaiers' boat race Shaw, Frank H. Shickell, Jack Ship Arkansas, See Old Ship Saloon: Ship Arkansas converted to Ship Blackwall: Burned in port by crew Ship Reefer: Legend "Shanghai" Kelly shanghaied crew onto Ship Yankee Blade Myth "Shanghai" Kelly rescued shipwrecked passengers Shipping Act of 1872 Shipping agents Shipping Articles Shipping dead men Shipping Masters: Estimated blood-money paid by James Laflin Listed in San Francisco City Directories Market maker role Mentioned in Boarding House Masters' constitution Menzies' friend Chandler hired as Scott and Babcock Section of Act of 1872 directed against Share of sailor's advance Thomas W. Chandler as Warren P. Herman as Sloop Mary E. Donovan Smith, Henry Smuggling South of Market Southern Cross: Jessen shanghaied onto by McCann St. Dominic's Church Stabens, Morris Staples, Marvin M. Staples, Melvin Steamer Goliah: "Shanghai" Kelly throws birthday bash on Stein, Gussie Stevenson, Jonathan D. Stewart, Jack F. Stutz, C.C. Sullivan, John L. Sullivan, John T.: Appointed to state Democratic committee Attends wedding of Laflin's daughter Bankrupcy Career Supervisor, First Ward Swannack, Daniel: Denounced by Coast Seamen's Union Resigns as superintendent of Sailor's Home Sailor's Home superintendent Signature in Laflin Record
T Taylor, Reverend William Tobin, Robert J. Trapdoor Turner, Matthew Twigg, John
U U.S. Shipping Commissioner
V Vigilance Committee Vigilantees Vlautin, Paul
W Warner, Abe: Cobweb Palace Waterman, Robert "Bully" Whaler Jeanette Whaler Narwhal Whaling: List of men in fleet, 1906-1928 Whaling Vessels: Connors sailed on Difficult conditions Laflin ships crew on Men lured onto Whitehall boat: Boarder steals Franklin's Chandler capsizes in Harbor police try to stop shanghaiing Origin Reported sixty miles outside Golden Gate Rescue by Dave Crowley, Sr. Role in shanghaiing Trapdoor myth Under sail Used in smuggling Used to transport newspapers to Oakland Whitehall boatmen: Allows five sailors to escape Competitive techniques Elected to state assembly Foil shanghaiing attempt in 1853 John T. Sullivan, friend of Paid to retrieve corpses Role in city's commerce Role in shanghaiing Wilson G. Hunt: Devine tries to escape on Wilson, Harry "Shanghai" Winn, A.M. Wright, Bowne & Company
Y Yankee Sullivan